What is the best way to transfer electricity wirelessly ?
Electricity has become one of the basic human needs lately. If we look around our houses we can find the conventional transmission system which uses wires for electricity flow. This transmission system is costlier because of the cable cost and also due to a certain transmission loss in the process. Hence the other option which is leading nowadays is wireless power transmission (WPT). This can also be called as inductive power transfer(IPT).
Wireless Power Transmission Technology
This is no way a new kind of technology. In 1980, it was first invented by Nikola Telsa. Now you must be thinking how the wireless transmission of electricity can be possible. It has three ways: solar cells, microwaves and resonance. Generally microwaves are used in an electrical device to transfer the electromagnetic radiation from a source to an electrical device. The wireless power transmission is very easy to understand, it is a way of transferring electric power from a certain source to an electrical device without the help of any wire. There are two coils, a transmitter and a receiver coil. The transmitter coil gets its power from an AC current, which in turn creates a magnetic field, and this initiates a voltage in the receiver coil.
To describe the mechanics of WPT, we need to understand how the power is converted and transmitted. It involves an inductive energy transmission transferred from a transmitter to a receiver via an oscillating magnetic field. To utilise the DC current coming from the power source, it is converted into high frequency AC current, with the help of the specially designed electronics built inside a transmitter.
Now in the transmitter section, the AC current sparks the copper wire, which helps in generating a magnetic field. Now once the receiver coil is brought near the magnetic field, the field induces an AC current in the receiving coil. Electrons in the receiving device later converts AC current back to DC current, which can be utilised by us.
Advantages of WPT
- This system helps in lowering the existent high tension in power transmission cables, substations and towers, which are the media between the consumer and generating station.
- Due to no requirements of wires, the cost of distribution and transmission becomes less.
- The cost which consumers need to pay for the electricity also reduces.
- The possibility of transmitting electricity to places where wired transmission cannot be possible, increases.
Application of wireless power transmission.
- The largest application has to be the production of power by setting satellites with giant solar arrays in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit, which helps in transmitting the power as microwaves to the Earth. These are known as Solar Power Satellites.
- WPT is targeting the automobile, so that it can replace fuels. Researchers are trying to manufacture fuel-free electric vehicles, fuel-free rockets and moving robots.
- The other applications include wireless power source, ubiquitous power source, and also RF Power Adaptive Rectifying Circuits and wireless sensors.